An overview of genetic rust resistance: From broad to specific mechanisms
Global agriculture is under threat due to the rapid evolution and spread of pathogenic fungi
that cause rust diseases. For instance, the recently evolved races of wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) and stripe rust (P. striiformis f. sp. tritici) fungus in parts of Africa, Asia, and Europe are a menace to food security due to their ability to spread rapidly and overcome
resistance in common wheat varieties . Similarly, new variants of Asian soybean rust (Pha-kopsora pachyrhizi) detected in Brazil and the United States pose a major constraint to soybean cultivation . Since genetic resistance can provide effective and chemical-free disease control, many efforts are directed towards isolating rust-resistance genes in crop plants and under-standing how to best deploy them for durable resistance . In addition, related nonhost species are increasingly being utilised to identify new sources of resistance [4, 5]. Here, we summarise current knowledge of rust resistance, focussing on race-specific, non–race-specific, and nonhost resistance mechanisms.
An overview of genetic rust resistance- From Broad to specific mechanisms-2017