Heat stress and yield stability of wheat genotypes under different sowing dates across agro-ecosystems in India
Among the most significant impacts of climate change is the potential increase of food insecurity. The predicted impact of temperature rise due to climate change on the crop production and productivity can be mediated through different crop management adaptations such as shifted sowing dates. We investigated the effects of sowing dates on yield stability of wheat across agro-ecosystems and years using multi-environment trials. The objectives of the study were as follows: (i) to evaluate the genotype × environment × management (G × E × M) for wheat genotypes, (ii) to predict yield performance and identify high stable wheat genotypes in different management practices, and (iii) to make genotype-specific management and high performing genotype recommendations within and across agro-ecological regions. A diverse set of twenty-one genotypes was evaluated over three years (2012–2014) under ten levels of crop management practices (ten different dates of sowing: D01- D10) across three agro-ecological regions (BR, MP and PB) of India in replicated trials. Data were analyzed with SASG × E and RG × E programs using SAS and R programming languages, respectively. Results revealed that the impact of shifted sowing dates on yield stability was unevenly spread across management practices. Across locations, the genotype ‘CSW 18’ (G03), ‘DPW 621-50’ (G05), ‘BAZ’ (G01) were the best performer and high stable in early, normal and later sowing dates, respectively. Across and within an individual location(s), the pattern of predicted yield suggests that the low performing genotypes during early sowing dates tend to became high performer during late sowing dates. Similarly, high predictive yield and high stable genotypes from early planting tend to have variable predicted yield with low stability during normal and late sowing dates for across and within an individual location(s). Low predictive yield and low stable genotypes had disease resistant genes and, thus, can be served as parent for future breeding, where trait value low is desired.